The fundamental building blocks for all computer chips are transistors. Nowadays Processors like Quad Core and Core i7 have more than 2 billion transistors. Thanks to University of Buffalo we have a cool animation that explains the steps involved in making just one pair of such transistor. The size of this pair is very small (in nanometers).
The following animation shows the process of building one basic block in a processor or chip, that is repeated a billion times and finally we get a processor for our computers!
browser needs to be APPLET enabled in order for you to be able to see the
interesting program I provided here …